In the top pictures, the negative half of the AC cycle has been removed completely. Although now DC, this supply is very 'rough'.
In the lower pictures, a special 'centre-tapped' transformer is used. Here, by using two rectifier diodes, both halves of the AC wave can be used - which produces the waveform shown. This is much easier to 'smooth' into pure DC.
Incidentally, these waveforms show why it is important to set the centreline with the AC - GND - DC switch -- otherwise these waveforms could easily be mistaken for AC.